The US Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit affirmed a grant of summary judgment, finding that a trademark registrant had alleged infringement of its trademark without having engaged in bona fide use of the trademark in commerce, as required by the Lanham Act. The Court found no material issue of fact as to whether the registrant had used the mark in commerce in a manner to properly secure registration, and the alleged infringer therefore was entitled to cancellation of the registration. Social Technologies LLC v. Apple Inc., Case No. 320-15241 (9th Cir. July 13, 2021) (Restani, J., sitting by designation)
This dispute traces back to a 2016 intent-to-use US trademark application filed by Social Technologies for the mark MEMOJI in connection with a mobile phone software application. After filing its application, Social Technologies engaged in some early-stage activities to develop a business plan and seek investors. On June 4, 2018, Apple announced its own MEMOJI software, acquired from a third party, that allowed users to transform images of themselves into emoji-style characters. At that date, Social Technologies had not yet written any code for its own app and had engaged only in promotional activities for the planned software.
Apple’s MEMOJI announcement triggered Social Technologies to rush to develop its MEMOJI app, which it launched three weeks later (although system bugs caused the app to be removed promptly from the Google Play Store). Social Technologies then used that app launch to submit a statement of use for its trademark application in order to secure registration of the MEMOJI trademark. The record also showed that over the course of those three weeks, Social Technologies’ co-founder and president sent several internal emails urging acceleration of the software development in preparation to file a trademark infringement lawsuit against Apple, writing to the company’s developers that it was “[t]ime to get paid, gentlemen,” and to “[g]et your Lamborghini picked out!”
By September 2018, Apple had initiated a petition before the Trademark Trial & Appeal Board to cancel Social Technologies’ MEMOJI registration. Social Technologies responded by filing a lawsuit for trademark infringement and seeking a declaratory judgment of non-infringement and validity of its MEMOJI registration. When both parties moved for summary judgement, the district court determined that Social Technologies had not engaged in bona fide use of the MEMOJI trademark and held that Apple was entitled to cancellation of Social Technologies’ registration. Social Technologies appealed.
Reviewing the district court’s grant of summary judgment de novo, the Ninth Circuit framed its analysis under the Lanham Act’s use in commerce requirement, which requires bona fide use of a mark in the ordinary course of trade and “not merely to reserve a right” in the mark. The issue on appeal was whether Social Technologies used the MEMOJI mark in commerce in such a manner to render its trademark registration valid.
The Ninth Circuit then explained the Lanham Act’s use in commerce requirement, which requires “use of a genuine character” determined by the totality of the circumstances (including “non-sales activity”), and explained that mere adoption of a trademark, without bona fide use in commerce, in an attempt to reserve rights for the future, is insufficient to establish rights in the mark. The Court reviewed supporting case law, distinguishing between cases where mere promotional activities or internal sales were determined not to constitute use in commerce, and cases where continuous use of a mark as a business name, in public relations campaigns, in sales presentations and in media coverage together sufficiently established bona fide use in commerce. The Court explained that looks for “external manifestation” and “sufficiently public use” to warrant trademark protection.
On the facts of the case before it, the Ninth Circuit found that the record evidence clearly demonstrated that Social Technologies’ use of the MEMOJI mark had not been bona fide use in commerce. With respect to its activities prior to Apple’s June 2018 MEMOJI announcement (which included no software code, the unsuccessful solicitation of investors, and no “association among consumers between the mark and the mark’s owner”), there was not sufficient use to entitle Social Technologies to trademark protection. The Court found that Social Technologies failed to put forward evidence that its admittedly rushed release of the software following Apple’s 2018 announcement was for a genuine commercial purpose warranting trademark protection, rather than mere “token use” in an attempt to reserve a right in the mark.
Affirming the district court’s grant of summary judgment, the Ninth Circuit concluded that Social Technologies did not engage in bona fide use of the MEMOJI trademark in commerce, that its registration was invalid, and that Apple was entitled to cancellation of Social Technologies’ MEMOJI registration.