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Analogous Art Includes Reference a Skilled Artisan Would Reasonably Consult

Addressing the standard for determining whether a prior art reference constitutes analogous art for purposes of an obviousness analysis, the US Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit vacated and remanded a Patent Trial and Appeal Board decision that a reference was not analogous. The Court explained that the Board did not consider the purpose and problems to which the prior art and challenged patent relate. Donner Tech., LLC v. Pro Stage Gear, LLC, Case No. 20-1104 (Fed. Cir. Nov. 9, 2020) (Prost, C.J.) Pro Stage owns a patent directed to an improved guitar effects pedalboard. Guitar effects pedals are electronic devices that affect the amplified sound of a guitar. The pedals are controlled by foot operation switches in order to leave the user's hands free to play the instrument. When multiple pedals are used, they must be interconnected by cables, which are typically daisy-chained between each separate pedal. Once interconnected, the pedals are placed on a...

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No Due Process Violation When New Panel Hears Substantive Arguments

Affirming a Patent Trial and Appeal Board (Board) non-obviousness determination, the US Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit found that the Board did not abuse its discretion in sanctioning a patent owner who engaged in ex parte communications by having a new panel hear the merits of the petition. Apple Inc. v. Voip-Pal.com Inc., Case Nos. 18-1456, -1457 (Fed. Cir. Sept. 25, 2020) (Reyna, J.). Voip-Pal sued Apple for allegedly infringing two of its patents directed to routing communications between two different types of networks: public and private. Apple then petitioned for inter partes review (IPR) of several claims from both patents, arguing they were invalid as obvious. The Board ultimately found the claims were not invalid because Apple did not provide evidentiary support as to the motivation to combine multiple references. During the IPR proceedings, Voip-Pal’s former CEO sent six letters to various parties, copying members of Congress, the...

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Inherent Claim Limitation Necessarily Present in the Prior Art Invalidates Patent

Addressing the issue of obviousness, the US Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit affirmed the district court’s finding that a patent was invalid based on inherency because the claim limitation was necessarily present in the prior art. Hospira, Inc. v. Fresenius Kabi USA, LLC, Case Nos. 19-1329, -1367 (Fed. Cir. Jan. 9, 2020) (Lourie, J). The patent at-issue is directed to premixed pharmaceutical compositions of dexmedetomidine that do not require reconstitution or dilution prior to administration and remains stable and active after prolonged storage. Hospira makes and sells dexmedetomidine products, including a ready-to-use product called Precedex Premix covered by the patent at-issue. Fresenius filed an Abbreviated New Drug Application (ANDA) seeking approval by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to market a generic ready-to-use dexmedetomidine product. Hospira brought suit alleging infringement under the Hatch-Waxman Act. After a five-day bench...

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Inherency Can Be Used in Obviousness Analysis to Supply Missing Limitation

Finding that inherency can be used to show the presence of a missing claim limitation, the US Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit affirmed a district court decision that asserted claims in pain management method patents were invalid as obvious. Persion Pharmaceuticals LLC v. Alvogen Malta Operations Ltd., Case No. 18-2361 (Fed. Cir., Dec. 27, 2019) (Reyna, J.). Persion has US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval for its extended release hydrocodone product, Zohydro ER, and also owns two patents directed to methods of treating pain with extended release hydrocodone in patients with mild to moderate hepatic impairment. Persion sued Alvogen for infringement of certain claims in these two patents after Alvogen filed an Abbreviated New Drug Application (ANDA) requesting approval from the FDA to market a generic version of Zohydro ER. The asserted claims include: (i) non-adjustment claims directed to administering a dose of hydrocodone to patients with...

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